How To Sound Like A Pro On A Movie Set

Movie Speak Cover-7.indd

By Marci Liroff

FADE IN: The A.D. squawks, “OK, this is the Martini! You need to walk in on a banana and clear the frame. Make sure you cheat toward the camera. Then I need first team back to one.” What crazy talk is this? In case you don’t know it, you are on a tv or movie set. Many of these terms are throwbacks to another era and have survived many generations of filmmakers. If you don’t know them you’re going to feel like you’ve dropped into another country and don’t speak the language. The lingo can be somewhat daunting if you don’t have a glossary handy. As always, I’m here to help.

After my last article referenced filming plenty of “heads and tails” when filming an audition, I thought it’s time to write an article detailing the language that goes on in the audition room and on-set. Kudos to my friend, director/producer/actor Tony Bill for his amazing book “Movie Speak – How to Talk Like You belong on a Film Set”. This book not only has an informative glossary, it gives the etymology of the word or expression in the film world along with stories from his years of being in the biz. Truly priceless.

Here are some of my favorite technical words and expressions.

The Abby Singer or “The Abby” named after the famous production manager who, as an A.D., realized that a few extra shots could be squeezed out of the busy shooting schedule if the crew began packing up and moving to the next location before a company move took place. This saved the production both time and money. This is typically the second to last shot of the day. It usually brings a quiet happy dance by much of the crew.

The Martini – the last shot of the day – meaning “the last shot is in the glass”!

The Jonesy – a new and bittersweet term on sets. This is the first shot of the day and honors assistant camerawoman Sarah Jones who lost her life on the set of the film Midnight Rider.

A.D. Assistant director. The A.D. runs the set. Next to the director, possibly the busiest person on the set. If you have a question, it might be better to go to the 2nd A.D. because the 1st A.D. is crazy busy.

P.A. – production assistant. It is probably the lowest on the food chain of the filmmaking community. This is one of the hardest jobs on the set as you will be responsible to deliver the exact coffee order to delivering meals to running lines with actors. You can also be the “eyes and ears” on-set and experience everything. Are you just starting out? This might be perfect your job. You will barely get paid but what you’ll see and learn is utterly priceless.

Room tone – is the “silence” recorded at a location or space when no dialogue is spoken. Every location has a distinct presence created by the position of the microphone in relation to the space boundaries. You are meant to stand still and not make a sound. Make sure your phone is turned off. Don’t be “that guy”.

M.O.S. – without sound. When the scene is shot without sound.

A.D.R./looping – Automated Dialogue Replacement, also called looping. During the editing process the actor is called back to re-record their voice. In a sound studio the scene is played back for the actor who re-records their lines sometimes due to outside sound such as an airplane overhead or to get a better performance. Sometimes entire performances are looped – Andie MacDowall’s performance in Tarzan was looped entirely by Glenn Close.

Banana – when walking through a scene you’ll do a slight curve, rather than a straight path, like a banana. You can do a right banana or a left banana. It helps the camera department to get the shot they need – rather than re-setting the shot and repositioning the camera. A “cashew” is a shorter banana.

Blocking – this is when the actors are on the actual shooting set and their movements are set up. The actors run the scene along with all their movements (from walking across the room, to picking up and drinking a cup of coffee). The director, A.D., D.P., lighting crew and script supervisor observe the blocking process so they’ll know where they need to put their equipment and how to light the scene. You’ll notice the camera crew throwing down little “bean bags” as markers whenever you move to different locations in the room. You also might find some directors block your audition scene. This is another reason why you need to be totally off-book when you arrive on-set or for your audition as you’ll be adding another layer of tasks to remember in a specific order. If you don’t know your lines perfectly, this next step will vex you. You need to do these movements exactly the same in each take for continuity.

Video village – this didn’t even exist 20 years ago. The encampment on the set, around the video monitor(s) so that all can view the action on set – and not actually be on the set. Several director chairs are set up in a silent pecking order -sometimes it’s in a covered tent. Here you can find the producers, writer, director, D.P., executives and any visiting guests. You don’t belong here unless you’re asked. Only the top tier of actors are welcome.

First team – you’ll hear the A.D. calling for “first team” when all the lighting is done and they’re ready to shoot. That’s you if you’re one of the actors (and not background/extras). Second team are the stand-ins and doubles.

Four-banger – a large trailer with four dressing rooms. You might be very excited to arrive on set and hear that you have a dressing room until you reach your single – which is coffin-like! There are also double and triple bangers and so on.

Gaffer – an electrician who is responsible for the execution, and sometimes the design, of the lighting plan.

Grip – the person who sets up the rigging for the lights and camera equipment.

Per Diem – Latin for “per day” or “for each day” – this is the money you get while shooting on location to pay for expenses (excluding housing and travel expenses). The various unions have minimum rates for per diem and can be found on their websites.

Sides – Sides are a few scenes from the script – usually used at the audition. Once you have the job and are on the set, the A.D. will give you your sides for the day – usually shrunken down to comfortably fit in your pocket. I’m still shocked when actors I’m coaching send me sides and call them the script.

Turnaround – The off-time hours guaranteed to actors and crewmembers between shooting days. A minimum time is guaranteed by the various union agreements. Many crewmembers aren’t guaranteed enough time to wrap, drive home after a long day of shooting, get the sleep they need, and get back to set the next day. See the famous D.P. Haskell Wexler’s important documentary, “Who Needs Sleep” for more info on the excessive work hours and the tragic results.

“Turnaround” also refers to the camera crew when they reset their cameras to shoot the other side of the conversation and turnaround to the other actor.

Stage left/right – In theater, stage left and right, at least in British and North American theatre, refer to the actor’s left and right when facing the audience.

Up-stage/Down-stage – the rear of the stage is considered up-stage. The front of the stage, nearest the audience, is down-stage.

Camera left/right – this is from the perspective of the camera. If you’re the actor and facing the camera, it’ll be your opposite view – looking at the camera, camera left will be YOUR right.

C-47 – One legend has it that an accountant, tired (or afraid) of explaining the purchase of a large quantity of clothespins, called them C-47s on the purchase order. Another story is that since they are often tossed from one crewmember to another, they were named after the WWII military version of the DC-3.

10-1 – the A.D.s usually use this term instead of saying the cast or crewmember is in the bathroom.

Honeywagon – Sounds kind of sexy. It’s not. It’s the bathroom.

Cowboy – this is a camera term from the days of westerns. The camera will frame “holstered guns-up level”, or waste/hips up. “Tight cowboy” would be above guns.

Sticks – the tripod

Lunch – It’s the meal served half-way through the shooting day. This one seems self-explanatory but on a film set you could have lunch at 3 in the morning – it’s still called lunch.

Magic hour/Golden hour – This is the D.P.’s delight. It is a period shortly after sunrise or before sunset during which daylight is redder and softer compared to when the Sun is higher in the sky. It’s been told that Terrence Malick shot Days of Heaven entirely during magic hour.

Golden time – when a crew is working past 16 hours. Everybody is exhausted, pissed off, and earning triple time!

Groucho – When an actor needs to crouch a bit as you approach the camera because they can’t tilt up. You can also do a “banana Groucho”

Pay or play – referring to an actor/director/writer getting paid whether the project is made or not. You either get paid or you’ll be “playing/acting” in the project. It’s the best kind of deal you can make.

Walk into frame – the frame is what the camera sees. You might be asked by a director on-set or in the audition room to walk into frame and hit your mark.

Cheat toward the camera – when you are having a conversation with someone you naturally face them. Sometimes when filming or auditioning, we’ll ask you to slightly turn more toward the camera so that we can see your expressions – hence “cheating” toward the camera.

Kill the baby! – I know filmmaking can be relentless but nobody is actually killing a child. This is when they turn off the baby Fresnel light.

Flying in – not actually flying like in a plane. When a request is made from a department head for a piece of equipment or a prop, the person who is retrieving it usually announces it’s “flying in” to the crew.

“We’re on the wrong set!” – No, you’re not actually on the wrong set – it’s what the A.D. says to signify a company move to the next set or location.

“Watch your back/Hot Points!” – you’ll hear the crew yelling this as they move equipment. Invariably, there’s always an intense discussion going on between the filmmakers directly in the path of the crew. This is their nice way of telling you to move your ass!

Hot set – A film set in which furniture, props (and sometimes food) are positioned for an imminent shoot – so labeled to prevent those items from being moved and thus compromising continuity in the finished product. You never want to mess with anything on a set, nor should you sit on the furniture unless you’re in the middle of the scene and told to do so.

Last looks – just before they start shooting the A.D. calls “last looks” so that the hair/make-up/prop people can make sure that the actors and the set looks exactly as it should before the camera rolls.

Back to one – if you think of your beginning position in a scene as one, that’s where you need to go back to when they call cut and start the scene again.

Checking the gate – no, they’re not going outside to see if the gate is open. The gate is a slot in the camera through which the film passes. On the completion of the filming of every scene, the A.D. orders that the gate be checked for any impurities such as lint or hair. If it’s not clear, images are spoiled and everything taken on that reel will have to be re-shot. These days so many productions aren’t using actual film and shoot digitally so you don’t hear it as often.

“What’s your 20?” – Usually spoken by crewmembers over their walkies (walkie-talkie) but is a corrupted phrase from the original “10-20” used by U.S. law enforcement to verbally encode their radio transmissions so that non-police listeners would not easily discover police operations.

Big eyes – when the AC (assistant cameraman) is focusing for a CU (close-up), he will usually ask the actor for “big eyes” and you want to do exactly that, without blinking or looking away, until focus is set.

What terms or expressions have you heard that you can share?

Make sure to check out my new online course “How To Audition For Film and Television: Audition Bootcamp”. You can view it on your laptop or your mobile device and your subscription gives you lifetime viewing privileges for this course. I’ll be adding lectures throughout the year.

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The Power Of Inspiration

photo(1)L-R Anne Hubbel, Tiffany Shlain, Rose McGowan, Mamrie Hart, Kamal Sinclair

By Marci Liroff

In my last column, I wrote about how my film, “The Sublime and Beautiful,” made its world premiere at this year’s 20th annual Slamdance Film Festival. Slamdance started as a ragtag festival running simultaneous with the Sundance Film Festival, and features emerging talent in films made for under $1 million. While I was there, I tried (to no avail!) to get into screenings at Sundance, but tickets are at a premium and mostly sold out—or you stand in a long line outside in the cold, only to be turned away. But then I discovered the panels! The panels at both film festivals were eye-opening. Beyond being there for my film, I found my true reason for being there: inspiration!

Inspiration can sometimes be an elusive thing, but when it strikes, it’s so powerful that you just know you’re on the right path.

The Women in Film panel at Sundance was especially inspiring. Anne Hubbell from Tangerine Entertainment moderated, with guest speakers Tiffany Shlain (founder of the Webby Awards), YouTube sensation Mamrie Hart, actor Rose McGowan (at Sundance with the short film she directed, “Dawn”), and Kamal Sinclair, senior manager of the Sundance Institute’s New Frontier Story Lab.

One of the themes repeatedly discussed was “community supporting community,” and the notion that you should not wait to be asked to the party by looking for permission to create. There are so many different ways to “crack the nut” to launch your projects, whether it be in film, television, Web series, or theater. Whatever your art is, surround yourself with advocates, put together your team of like-minded, incredibly talented, and creative people, look for your mentors, and keep your eyes open for your inspiration.

A Slamdance panel discussing short-form content had Chad Hurley (the co-founder of a little thing called YouTube!) and brothers Joe and Anthony Russo, who were at Slamdance in 1997 with “Pieces,” before Steven Soderbergh hired them to direct George Clooney’s “Welcome To Collinwood.” They then directed the pilot of “Arrested Development,” became executive producers–directors on NBC’s “Community,” and most recently co-directed “Captain America: The Winter Soldier.”

In this panel, they talked a lot about how short-form content (i.e., Vine videos, short films) can be a “point of access” to decision makers. Joe Russo says his daughter doesn’t watch comedy TV the way we used to. Now she watches Vine videos for an hour and laughs hysterically to get her “hit” of comedy. He mentioned Vine star Rudy Mancuso as a good example of how you can be discovered, “because somebody like me sits in an office, laughs, and says, ‘Find this guy.’ ” They liked him so much, they contacted him about doing a project, all from watching his six-second videos! I wondered if all this short-form content was fostering short attention spans in the viewers. I think our brains, especially in the younger folks, are actually being rewired to only be able to view and retain short-form content.

The Russo brothers suggested that if you’re a filmmaker, you should have scripts ready so that when you get the opportunity, you actually have content to show. Decide what kind of career you want and use the question, “What do you want to be doing in five years?” to reframe your thinking and choose your path.

So I ask you: What do you want to be doing in five years, and how are you going to get there?

Make sure to check out my new online course “How To Audition For Film and Television: Audition Bootcamp”. You can view it on your laptop or your mobile device and your subscription gives you lifetime viewing privileges for this course. I’ll be adding lectures throughout the year.

Glad you’re here.


Career Advantages to Film Festivals

IMG_2740Sublime and Beautiful stars Laura Kirk, Anastasia Baranova and me in the middle!

By Marci Liroff

I just got back from the Slamdance Film Festival, where my film, “The Sublime and Beautiful,” made its world premiere. Aside from coming down with a wicked case of bronchitis, it was an amazing week in Park City, Utah. I got to see many new films and meet the filmmakers; as a casting director and producer, I always have my eyes peeled for great filmmakers on the rise and actors I’ve never seen before. It’s such a great marketplace to discover new talent.

I had the pleasure of seeing a little gem of a movie called “Three Night Stand,” starring Sam Huntington, Emmanuelle Chriqui, and Meaghan Rath, and shot in Montreal. I’d known of Sam from his work on the film “Detroit Rock City” and, of course, playing Jimmy Olsen in “Superman Returns.” Emmanuelle you’ll remember from “Entourage.” New to me was Meaghan Rath, who is beautiful, smart, funny, and quirky—such a great combination in an actor.

Being a filmmaker with a film at a festival is one thing, but I was curious what it’s like for an actor. I had a chance to talk to Meaghan after Slamdance, me from my sickbed (!) and Meaghan on the set of her Syfy series “Being Human.” I asked her, “From the actor’s point of view, what can one do to ‘work it’ to your advantage? Did you take any extra steps, like hire a publicist?” She replied, “I think Slamdance is a whole other ball game when it comes to festivals. For the film, we did hire a publicist. We wanted to take full advantage of all the potential press. The best thing you can do for your film at that point is exposure. You want people to see the poster, see the actors, and hear the title.”

She continued, “As an actor, I’d been working with my own publicist for almost four years when I started doing my show, ‘Being Human.’ For the festival, my personal publicist is able to work with the film’s publicist to secure press opportunities where I can promote the film, as well as myself, and the other projects I have going on.”

I asked if she thought Slamdance differed from other festivals in terms of what an actor should be doing to network and interact with filmmakers. Meaghan responded, “In regard to networking, I have to be honest—I’m not a big networker. But I think the energy and general feeling of Slamdance is one of support. So I made an effort to go to the parties and meet the other filmmakers, see their movies, and participate in the festival as much as I could.” And indeed she did, because I saw her everywhere I went!

For me, the parties are not necessarily my scene. However, there are so many other ways you can take advantage of a film festival. I spent my time seeing as many of the films that were competing in our category as I could, along with going to several of the panels. Stay tuned for part two, in which I explore some of the panels at the Slamdance and Sundance film festivals, along with my thoughts on indie filmmaking!

Make sure to check out my new online course “How To Audition For Film and Television: Audition Bootcamp”. You can view it on your laptop or your mobile device and your subscription gives you lifetime viewing privileges for this course. I’ll be adding lectures throughout the year.

Please share your comments/stories on being at a film festival.

We’d love to hear your experiences

Glad you’re here – Marci


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